Belajar Tenses Bahasa Inggris / Bentuk Waktu

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Sekarang kita belajar tentang kalimat. Pada bab ini kita akan belajar bagaimana menyusun kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris, tentang bagaimana orang Inggris menyampaikan sesuatu, seperti kata orang Indonesia “Saya mau makan nasi” kata orang Inggris “I will eat rise”, “Dia melipat selimutnya” kata orang inggris “He folds  up his blanket”, “Saya disini” kata .orang Inggris “I am here.” Lalu bagaimana kalau mau bilang, “Sampaikan salamku padanya.”, “Kamu pasti seorang penulis.”? Kita pelajari step by step.

Ada dua jenis kalimat yang perlu anda pahami perbedaan susunannya, yakni kalimat verbal dan kalimat nominal. Anda tidak perlu bingung untuk membedakannya. Perbedaan keduanya terletak pada jenis kata setelah Subject. Pada kalimat verbal subject diikuti verb, pada kalimat nominal subject diikuti noun, adjective, atau adverb, dan harus diberi to be subject. Perhatikan table berikut.

Verbal sentence
S + V + O
Nominal Sentence
S+to be+(noun, adjective, adverb)
*Adverb of place and adverb of time)
·   My sister cries
Saudara perempuanku  menangis
·   My younger sister cleans the room
Kakak perempuanku membersihkan kamar
·   We play football
Kami bermain sepak bola
·   They come together
Mereka dating bersama-sama
·         Her sister is in library.
Saudara perempuannya di perpustakaan
·         His aunt is a teacher
  Bibinya seorang guru
·         I am her niece
  Saya kemenakan perempuannya
·         He is my father’s nephew
  Dia kemenakan laki-laki ayahku
·         He is very kind
  Dia sangat baik
·         They are my brothers
  Mereka saudaraku
·         We are twin
Kami saudara kembar


Pada tabel diatas jelas perbedaannya. Kolom kiri tidak menggunakan to be. To be (is, am, are) hanya digunakan di kolom kanan, yakni pada kalimat nominal.

Selain itu, anda juga perlu belajar susunan kalimat passive dan cara penggunaan question words (kata tanya), berikut:

Question words:
What                Apa
Who                 Siapa
Whom              Siapa
When               Kapan
Where              Dimana
Why                 Kenapa
Whose             Milik siapa
Which              Yang mana
How                 Bagaimana
How many       Berapa banyak
How much       Berapa banyak
How far           Berapa jauh
How long         Berapa lama
How often       Berapa sering

Passive voice (Kalimat pasif)

Verbal sentence
S + to be + V3 + O
Nominal Sentence

·   Rice is eaten by Andre
Nasi dimakan oleh Andre
·   His homework is done by his brother
PR-nya dikerjakan oleh saudara laki-lakinya
·   The students are taught by the teacher
Siswa diajari oleh guru
·   The book is borrowed by Nita
Bukuunya dipinjam oleh Nita




               X

Kalau sudah paham, sekarang kita pelajari macam-macam susunan kalimat berdasarkan waktu, yaitu waktu lampau, sekarang, dan akan datang. Ini saja dulu yang kita pelajari. Sebenarnya susunannya tidak terlalu beda, tetapi verb dan kata bantunya yang berbeda.

Pada bagian ini yang perlu anda lakukan adalah mengenal dan mengakrabkan diri dengan susunan kalimat pada masing-masing tenses, jadi tidak perlu memikirkan yang lainnnya  dulu. Mengenai cara penggunaannya secara detail akan dibahas pada bagian selanjutnya. Pada bagian ini hanya dibahas sekilas saja. Tetapi tidak ada salahnya anda membaca bagian berikutnya dulu dari pada penasaran.
Perhatikan diagram berikut:

Tenses bahasa Inggris, belajar grammar bahasa inggris, grammar bahasa inggris
  
Perhatikan 3 titik pada diagram di atas: titik A, titik B, dan titik C. Garis vertikal merupakan garis perjalanan waktu, dari titik A menuju titiik  C. Artinya, titik A adalah masa lampau, titik B adalah masa sekarang, dan titik C adalah masa yang akan datang. Lihat contoh berikut:
  1. Andi walked alone yesterday (A).  Andi berjalan sendirian kemarin
  1. I need you (B). Aku membutuhkanmu
  1. He will come here tomorrow (C). Dia akan datang ke sini besok  
Kalimat A mengungkapkan kejadian di masa lampau/sudah terjadi, yakni kemarin (titik A dalam diagram). Kalimat B mengungkap kejadian sekarang (titik B). dan kalimat C mengungkat kejadian yang akan terjadi di masa depan, yakni besok (titik C).

Jadi, pada dasarnya hanya ada tiga macam waktu yang dijadikan dasar perbedaan susunan kalimat. Tidak semuanya beda, tetapi hanya kata kerja (Verb) dan kata bantu (Auxiliary) saja yang beda. Perhatikan table berikut:

Verb 1
Verb 2
Verb 3
Indonesia
is, am, are
do
go
see
walk
talk
was, were
did
went
saw
walked
talked
Been
done
gone
seen
walked
talked
      -
melakukan
pergi
melihat
berjalan
berbicara

Mari kita mulai belajar 3 macam susunan kalimat tersebut. Titik A menggunakan susunan kalimat yang disebut Simpe Past, titik B menggunakan Simple Present, dan titik C menggunakan Simple Future. Lihat table berikut:

Kita mulai dari Simple Present

Verbal sentence
S + V(s/es) + O
Nominal sentence
S + to be + N, Adj, Adverb
·   I walk alone
Saya berjalan sendirian
·   I eat banana
Saya makan pisang
·   He walks alone
Dia berjalan sendirian
·   She eats banana
Dia makan pisang
·   They play football
Mereka bermain bola
·   It goes to the rice field
Dia(binatang) pergi ke sawah
·   The cat catches a mouse
Kucing menangkap seekor tikus
·    They are football players
Mereka pemain sepak bola
·    They are strong
Mereka kuat
·    We are clever
Kami pintar
·    I am at home
Saya di rumah
·    He is in library
Dia di perpustakaan
·    She is in the kitchen
Dia di dapur
·   I do not walk alone
Saya tidak berjalan sendirian
·   I do not eat banana
Saya tidak makan pisang
·   He does not walk alone
Dia tidak berjalan sendirian
·   She does not eat banana
Dia tidak makan pisang
·   They do not play football
Mereka tidak bermain bola
·   It does not go to the rice field
Dia tidak pergi ke sawah
·   The cat does not catch a mouse
Kucing tidak menangkap seekor tikus
·    They are not football players
Mereka bukan pemain sepak bola
·    They are not strong
Mereka tidak kuat
·    We are not stupid
Kami tidak bodoh
·    I am not at home
Saya tidak dirumah
·    He is not in library
Dia tidak di perpustakaan
·    She is not in the kitchen
Dia tidak di dapur
·    Is she okay?
Apakah dia baik-baik saja?

·   Do you walk alone?
Apakah kamu berjalan sendirian?
·   Do you eat banana?
Apakah kamu makan pisang?
·   Does he walk alone?
Apakah dia berjalan sendirian?
·   Does she eat banana?
Apakah dia makan pisang?
·   Do they play football?
Apakah mereka bermain bola?
·   Does it go to the rice field?
Apakah dia pergi ke sawah?
·   Does cat catch a mouse?
Apakah kucing mennangkap seekor tikus?
·    Are they football players?
Apakah mereka pemain sepak bola?
·    Are they strong?
Apakah mereka kuat?
·    Are they clever?
Apakah mereka pintar?
·    Is he in library?
Apakah dia di perpustakaan?
·    Is she in the kitchen?
Apakah dia di dapur?
·    Is it there?
Apakah dia di sini?
·    Is Andi there?
Apakah Andi disana
·    Is the teacher okay?
Apakah gurunya baik-baik saja
·    Is the taste delicious?
Apakah rasanya lezat?

·   What do you like to eat?
Apa yang suka kamu makan?
·   What book do you read?
Buku apa yang kamu  baca?
·   Who opens the door?
Siapa yang membuka pintu?
·   Who sends the letter?
Siapa yang mengirim suratnya?
·   Who do you speak to?
Kepada siapa kamu berbicara?
·   Who do you go with?
Dengan siapa kamu pergi?
·   To whom do you speak?
Kepada siapa kamu bicara?
·   With whom do you go?
Dengan siapa kamu pergi?
·   When do you come?
Kapan kamu akn datang?
*jarang dipake
·   Where            does he live?
Dimana dia tinggal?
·   Where do you play football?
Dimana kamu bermain sepak bola?
·   Why does she cry?
Kenapa dia menangis?   
·   Why do you come here?
Kenapa kamu datang kesini?
·   Whose book do you read?
Bukunya siapa yang kamu baca?  
·   Whose car do you rent yellow?
Mobilnya siapa yang kamu sewa?
·   Which            one do you like?
Yang mana yang kamu suka?
·   Which room do you like?
Kamar yang mana yang kamu suka?
·   How does he climb that tower?
Bagaimana dia memanjat tower?
·   How does he drive his car?
Bagaimana dia mengendarai mobilnya?
·   How many friends do you have?     
Berapa banyak teman yang kamu punya?
·   How many rabbits does she have?
Berapa kelinci yang ia punya?
·   How much do you need?
Berapa banyak gula yang kamu butuhkan?               
·   How much water does she drink a day?
Berapa banyak air yang ia minum sehari?
·   How much doest it cost?
Berapa harganya ini?
·   How long does it take?
Berapa lama perjalanannya?
·   How often do you come to library?
Berapa sering kamu ke perpustakaan? 
·   How often does she come here?
Berapa sering dia datang kesini?
·   What is it/that?
Apa ini/itu?                      
·   What is this/these?
Apa ini?
·   What is in this box?
Apa di kotak ini?
·   What is she like?
Seperti apa dia?
·   What is your name?
Siapa namamu?
·   What is photosynthesis?
Apa itu fotosintesis?
·   Who are you?
Siapa kamu?   
·   Who is he?
Siapa dia?
·   Where            is he?
Dimana dia?   
·   Where are you?
Dimana kamu?
·   Where are you from?
Dari mana asalmu?
·   Where is my pen?
Dimana bolpenku?
·   Why are you here?
Kenapa kamu di sini?   
·   Why are you so happy?
Kenapa kamu sangat senang?
·   Why are you sad?
Kenapa kamu sedih?
·   Whose wallet is it?
Dompet siapa ini?        
·   Whose friend is in frontof the class?
Teman siapa di depan kelas?
·   Which            one is yours?
Yang mana ilikmu?   
·   Which car is yours?
Mobil yang mana milikmu?
·   How are you?
Bagaimana kabarmu?         
·   How is he?
Bagaimana kabar dia?
·   How is your family? (US)
Bagaimana kabar/keadaan keluargamu?
·   How are your family? (UK)
Bagaimana kabar/keadaan keluargamu?
·   How is the weather?
Bagaimana cuacanya?
·   How is the taste?
Bagaimana rasanya?
·   How many people are in library?
Berapa banyak orang diperpustakaan?       
·   How many students outside?
Berapa banyak siswa diluar?
·   How many countries are in there in the world?
Berapa banyak negara yang ada di dunia?
·   How much water is in the bottle?
Berapa banyak air di botol?           
·   How much is it?
Berapa harganya ini?
·   How far is your home?
Berapa jauh rumahmu?
·   How long is the program?
Berapa lama programnya?


 Note:
  • Verb pada kalimat positive ditambahh s/es ketika subjeknya berupa She, He, dan It, pada kalimat negative dan introgative tidak.
  • Kata bantu do digunakan untuk subject berupa they, we, I, dan you. Sedangkan does digunakan untuk subject he, she, dan it
  • is untuk subject he, she, dan it. are untuk subject they, we, dan you. Sedangkan am untuk subject I.
  • Simple present tense juga digunakan untuk mengungkap kejadian/tindakan yang dilakukan berulang-ulang (kebiasaan/rutinitas), hobi, kegiatan terjadwal, dan berpendapat.
Simple Past
Verbal sentence
S + V2 + O
Nominal sentence
S + to be2 + N, Adj, Adverb
·   I walked alone last night
·   They played football last week
·   She went to library yesterday
·         She was a student last year
·   They were stupid 5 years ago
·         I was there last night

·   I did not walk alone last night
·   She was not a student last year
·   Did you walk aone last night?
·         Was she a student last year?
Note:
  • Menggunakan Verb 2 dan to be 2
  • Pada Verbal sentence kalimat negative menggunakan kata bantu did sebelum not, begitu juga dalam kalimat tanya/interrogative sentence, dan menggunakan Verb 1. Pada nominal sentence, not diletakkan setelah to be2
  • Time signal/keterangan waktu: last week, last month, last year, yesterday, last night, this morning, etc.
  • Untuk mengetahui Verb2 sangat mudah, yakni tinggal menambahkan –ed/-d, seperti walked, loved pada kata kerja beraturan/regular verb. Sedangkan pada kata kerja tidak beraturan/irregular verb, kita perlu menghafalnya. Tempelkan saja daftar irregular verb di tempat-tempat yang sering kita lihat, seperti pintu, dinding, meja, dsb.
Sekarang kita lanjut pada future tense/masa yang akan datang.
 
Verbal sentence
S+Will/shall+V1+O
Nominal sentence
S+Will/shall+be+ N, Adj, Adverb
·   I will/shall walk alone
·   I will eat banana
·   He will walk alone
·   She will eat banana
·   We will/shall play football
·   It will go to the rice field
·   The cat will catch a mouse
·    They will be football players
·    They will be strong
·    We will/shall be clever
·    I will/shall be at home
·    He will be in library
·    She will be in the kitchen
·   I will/shall not walk alone
·   I will/shall not eat banana
·   He will snot walk alone
·   She will not eat banana
·   They do not play football
·   It will not go to the rice field
·   The cat will not catch a mouse
·    They will not be football players
·    They will not be strong
·    We will/shall not be clever
·    I will/shal not be at home
·    He will not be in library
·    She will not be in the kitchen
·   Will you walk alone?
·   Will you eat banana?
·   Will he walk alone?
·   Will she eat banana?
·   Will they play football?
·   Will it go to the rice field?
·   Will the cat catch a mouse?
·    Will they be football players?
·    Will they be strong?
·    Will/shall we be clever?
·    Will he in library?
·    Will she in the kitchen?
·    Will it there?

Itulahh 3 macam susunan kalimat berdasarkan waktu. Selanjutnya, ada beberapa macam lagi yang sering kita gunakan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, tetapi hanya merupakan gabungan-gabungan dari ketiganya, yakni
  1. present continuous/progressive,
  2. past continuous,
  3. future continuous
  4. present perfect
  5. past perfect
  6. future perfect
  7. present perfect continuous
  8. past perfect continuous
  9. future perfect continuous

kita pelajari yang umum digunakan dulu, yakni present perfect, present continuous, past continuous, perfect continuous, dan future continuous. Susunannya tidak terlalu jlimet, berikut:

Kita menggunakan present continuous ketika durasi suatu kejadian atau tindakan perlu untuk disampaikan atau menegaskan bahwa kejadian atau tindakan tersebut sedang berlangsung. Kita pahai dari contoh saja cara penggunaannya. Sekarang kita pelajari structurenya dulu. Berikut:

Present continuous

Verbal sentence
S+to be +Ving+O
Nominal sentence

·   I am walking alone
·   I am eating banana
·   He is walking alone
·   She is eating banana
·   We are playing football
·   It is going to the rice field
·   The cat is catching a mouse



            X
·   I am not walking alone
·   I am not eating banana
·   He is not walking alone
·   She is not eating banana
·   They are not playing football
·   It is not going to the rice field
·   The cat is not catching a mouse





             X
·   Are you walking alone?
·   Are you eating banana?
·   Is he walking alone?
·   Is she eating banana?
·   Are they playing football?
·   Is it going to the rice field?
·   Is the cat catching a mouse?




            X
Note:
  • Tidak ada nominal pada present continuous.
  • Digunakan untuk mengungkap kejadian atau aktifitas yang sedang berlangsung saat sekarang. Mirip dengan present tense, tetapi continuous tense menekankan pada masih berlangsung-nya, present tense pada aktivitas/kejadian-nya.
Sekarang kita belajar Past continuous, berikut susunan kalimatnya.
Verbal sentence
S+to be +Ving+O
Nominal sentence

·   I was walking alone
·   I was eating banana
·   He was walking alone
·   She was eating banana
·   We were playing football
·   It was going to the rice field
·   The cat was catching a mouse



            X
·   I was not walking alone
·   I was not eating banana
·   He was not walking alone
·   She was not eating banana
·   They were not playing football
·   It was not going to the rice field
·   The cat was not catching a mouse





             X
·   Were you walking alone?
·   Were you eating banana?
·   Was he walking alone?
·   Was she eating banana?
·   Were they playing football?
·   Was it going to the rice field?
·   Was the cat catching a mouse?




            X

Sekarang kita belajar Future continuous, berikut susunan kalimatnya:

Verbal sentence
S+to be +Ving+O
Nominal sentence

·   I will be walking alone
·   I will be eating banana
·   He will be  walking alone
·   She will be eating banana
·   We will be playing football
·   It will be going to the rice field
·   The cat will be catching a mouse



            X
·   I will not be walking alone
·   I will not be eating banana
·   He will not be walking alone
·   She will not be eating banana
·   They will not be playing football
·   It will not be going to the rice field
·   The cat will not be catching a mouse





             X
·   Will you be walking alone?
·   Will you be eating banana?
·   Will he be walking alone?
·   Will she be eating banana?
·   Will they be playing football?
·   Will it be going to the rice field?
·   Will the cat be catching a mouse?




            X

Sekarang kita belajar present perferct, berikut susunan kalimatnya:

Verbal sentence
S+have/has+V3+O
Nominal sentence
S+have/has+been+ N, Adj, Adverb
·   I have walked alone
·   I have eaten banana
·   He has walked alone
·   She has eaten banana
·   We have played football
·   It has gone to the rice field
·   The cat has caught a mouse
·    They have been football players
·    They have been strong
·    We have been clever
·    I have been at home
·    He has been in library
·    She has been in the kitchen
·   I have not walked alone
·   I have not eaten banana
·   He has not walked alone
·   She has not eaten banana
·   They have not played football
·   It has not gone to the rice field
·   The cat has not caught a mouse
·    They have not been football players
·    They have not been strong
·    We have not been clever
·    I have not been at home
·    He has not been in library
·    She has  not been in the kitchen
·   Have you walked alone?
·   Have you eaten banana?
·   Has he walked alone?
·   Has she eaten banana?
·   Have they played football?
·   Has it gone to the rice field?
·   Has the cat caught a mouse?
·    Have they been football players?
·    Have they been strong?
·    Have you been clever?
·    Has he been in library?
·    Has she been in the kitchen?
·    Has it been there?

Sekarang kita belajar perfect continuous, berikut susunan kalimatnya:

Verbal sentence
S+to be +Ving+O
Nominal sentence

·   I have been walking alone
·   I have been eating banana
·   He has been walking alone
·   She has been eating banana
·   We have been playing football
·   It has been going to the rice field
·   The cat has been catching a mouse



            X
·   I have not been walking alone
·   I have not been eating banana
·   He has not been walking alone
·   She has not been eating banana
·   They have not been playing football
·   It has not been going to the rice field
·   The cat has not been catching a mouse





             X
·   Have you been walking alone?
·   Have you been eating banana?
·   Has he been walking alone?
·   Has she been eating banana?
·   Have they been playing football?
·   Has it been going to the rice field?
·   Has the cat been catching a mouse?




            X

Berikut merupakan beebrapa susunan kalimat yang tidak begitu sering digunakan, tetapi penting juga untuk diketahui:

Past perfect

Verbal sentence
S+had+V3+O
Nominal sentence
S+had+been+ N, Adj, Adverb
·   I had walked alone
·   I had eaten banana
·   He had walked alone
·   She had eaten banana
·   We had played football
·   It had gone to the rice field
·   The cat had caught a mouse
·    They had been football players
·    They had  been strong
·    We had been clever
·    I had been at home
·    He had been in library
·    She had been in the kitchen
·   I had not walked alone
·   I had not eaten banana
·   He had not walked alone
·   She had not eaten banana
·   They had not played football
·   It had not gone to the rice field
·   The cat had not caught a mouse
·    They had not been football players
·    They had not been strong
·    We had not been clever
·    I had not been at home
·    He had not been in library
·    She had not been in the kitchen
·   Had you walked alone?
·   Had you eaten banana?
·   Had he walked alone?
·   Had she eaten banana?
·   Had they played football?
·   Had it gone to the rice field?
·   Had the cat caught a mouse?
·    Had they been football players?
·    Had they been strong?
·    Had we been clever?
·    Had he in been library?
·    Had she been in the kitchen?
·    Had it been there?

Past perfect continuous

Verbal sentence
S+had+been+Ving+O
Nominal sentence

·   I had been walking alone
·   I had been eating banana
·   He had been walking alone
·   She had been eating banana
·   We had been playing football
·   It had been going to the rice field
·   The cat had been catching a mouse

·   I had not been walking alone
·   I had not been eating banana
·   He had not been walking alone
·   She had not been eating banana
·   They had not been playing football
·   It had not been going to the rice field
·   The cat had not been catching a mouse

·   Had you been walking alone?
·   Had you been eating banana?
·   Had he been walking alone?
·   Had she been eating banana?
·   Had they been playing football?
·   Had it been going to the rice field?
·   Had the cat been catching a mouse?


Future perfect

Verbal sentence
S+will+have+V3+O
Nominal sentence
S+will+have+been+ N, Adj, Adverb
·   I will have walked alone
·   I will have eaten banana
·   He will have walked alone
·   She will have eaten banana
·   We will have played football
·   It will have gone to the rice field
·   The cat will have caught a mouse
·    They will have been football players
·    They will have been strong
·    We will have been clever
·    I will have been at home
·    He will have been in library
·    She will have been in the kitchen
·   I will not have walked alone
·   I will not have eaten banana
·   He will not have walked alone
·   She will not have eaten banana
·   They will have not played football
·   It will not have gone to the rice field
·   The cat will not have caught a mouse
·    They will not have been football players
·    They will not have been strong
·    We will not have been clever
·    I will not have been at home
·    He will not have been in library
·    She will not have been in the kitchen
·   Will you have walked alone?
·   Will you have eaten banana?
·   Will he have walked alone?
·   Will she have eaten banana?
·   Will they have played football?
·   Will it have gone to the rice field?
·   Will the cat have caught a mouse?
·    Will they have been football players?
·    Will they have been strong?
·    Will we have been clever?
·    Will he have been in library?
·    Will she have been in the kitchen?
·    Will it have been there?

Future perfect continuous

Verbal sentence
S+will+have+been+Ving+O
Nominal sentence

·   I will have been walking alone
·   I will have been eating banana
·   He will have been walking alone
·   She will have been eating banana
·   We will have been playing football
·   It will have been going to the rice field
·   The cat will have been catching a mouse

·   I will not have been walking alone
·   I will not have been eating banana
·   He will not have been walking alone
·   She will not have been eating banana
·   They will not have been playing football
·   It will not have been going to the rice field
·   The cat will not have been catching a mouse

·   Will you have been walking alone?
·   Will you have been eating banana?
·   Will he have been walking alone?
·   Will she have been eating banana?
·   Will they have been playing football?
·   Will it have been going to the rice field?
·   Will the cat have been catching a mouse?


Tuntas sudah materi tenses. Anda belum bisa mengingat semuanya, atau bahkan belum paham. Tidak perlu khawatir, itu  wajar.

Kemudian dilanjutkan pada pelajaran tentang susunan-susunan tertentu seperti kalimat langsung dan tidak langsung, perbandingan, pengandaian, causative, dsb.


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The Real Education Updated at: 07:13

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